Salud del suelo

Autor: 
Anaité Carolina Herrera Ramos
Fecha: 
16 / 04 / 2021

Es un reto permanente, la sustentabilidad de la humanidad en nuestro planeta y, el suelo es un componente clave para alcanzarla.

Para llegar a suministrar alimentos en las cantidades que demanda la población humana, es necesario aumentar la productividad en los sistemas agrícolas. Un elemento indispensable para cumplir con ese objetivo es la capacidad de los suelos, de sostener el desarrollo y la producción de cultivos.

Salud del suelo es sinónimo de “calidad del suelo”, el Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos (USDA NRCS) define este término como:

“Capacidad continua de un suelo de funcionar como ecosistema vital, que pueda sustentar plantas, animales y humanos”.

El concepto de salud del suelo se refiere a la dinámica de las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas que cambian como consecuencia de uso y manejo de los suelos por el ser humano.

La salud del suelo es dinámica, las prácticas culturales pueden mejorar o deteriorar la misma. Un suelo sano cumple funciones que son críticas para la producción agrícola tales como:

  • Infiltración de agua y almacenamiento de aire y agua.
  • Retención y reciclamiento de nutrientes.
  • Supresión de enfermedades y malezas.

Es de beneficio económico para los agricultores mantener y mejorar la salud del suelo, dado que se reduce el riesgo de bajos rendimientos asociados a compactación, lluvias copiosas, sequías y brotes de enfermedades.

Las características de un suelo sano son:

  • Estructura friable que permita intercambio de aire y agua
  • Suficiente profundidad
  • Alta población de organismos benéficos
  • Disponibilidad de nutrientes
  • Baja población de patógenos y plagas
  • Buen drenaje
  • Baja presión de malezas
  • Libre de sustancias tóxicas para el cultivo
  • Resistencia a degradación (erosión, exceso de precipitación pluvial, sequía extrema, compactación por maquinaria etcétera).
  • Resiliencia (rápida recuperación de eventos adversos).

A través de los años, se ha puesto atención en entender la importancia que los factores químicos y físicos tienen sobre la productividad de los suelos, sin embargo, recientemente se ha manifestado la necesidad de también comprender los factores biológicos y la biología del suelo. La gestión de las propiedades biológicas es vital para el manejo integral del suelo, y así asegurar la productividad y sostenibilidad de la agricultura.

La adición de enmiendas orgánicas y microorganismos o metabolitos de microorganismos benéficos mejoran la estructura, aumentan la capacitad de retención de humedad y de intercambio gaseoso para el desarrollo de raíces sanas, así como restringen el crecimiento de patógenos.

Los productores pueden incrementar la salud de sus suelos identificando cambios en el manejo que se pueden hacer para mejorar las propiedades biológicas, físicas y químicas en los mismos.

En general, las prácticas agrícolas que mejoran la salud del suelo son:

  • Labranza de conservación: Se refiere a perturbar lo menos posible el suelo.
  • Adición de enmiendas orgánicas.
  • Adición y conservación de poblaciones de microorganismos benéficos que participan en la mineralización de material orgánica.
  • Adición de enmiendas químicas si son necesarias, tales como encalado o aplicaciones de azufre.
  • Rotación de cultivos
  • Mantener el suelo protegido: No dejar el suelo desnudo para evitar erosión y pérdida de humedad.

 

Se puede concluir que la salud del suelo es fundamental para una agricultura regenerativa y sustentable.

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